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Kinds of Biomes

Biomes are areas of habitat that includes a broad scale. Here's just discuss some major biomes are:

1. Deserts and Desert Biomes Half

Desert and semi-desert biomes are found in North America, North Africa, Australia and West Asia.

1. Rainfall is very low, + 25 cm / year
2. Faster rate of evaporation of water from precipitation
3. Humidity is very low
4. The temperature difference during haridenganmalamharisangattinggi (siangdapat reached 45 C, nights can drop to 0 C)
5. Very barren ground for not being able to save water

Biotic environment:

- Flora: plant is a plant that can grow
adapt to dry areas (plants serofit).

- Fauna: large animals that live in the desert are generally capable of
save water, such as camels, is for small animals
such as lizards, snakes, mice, ants, generally just active life in
morning, the sunlight they live in holes.

2. Grassland Biome

Grassland biome extends from the tropics to temperate regions, such as Hungary, South Russia, Central Asia, South America, Australia.

1. Rainfall is between 25-50 cm / year, in some areas of grassland hajannya bulk up to 100 cm / year.
2. Rainfall is relatively low down in an irregular manner.
3. Irregular rainfall causes porosity and good drainage so the plants difficult to fetch water.

Biotic environment:

- Flora: a plant that is able to adapt to areas with
porosity and poor drainage is grass, although there are other plants that live besides grass, but because they
is the dominant vegetation is called meadow. Name pasture diverse as the Russian steppes in the South,
puzta in Hungary, the North American prairie and pampa in Argentina.

- Fauna: bison and wild horses (mustangs) in America, elephants and giraffes in Africa, sheep and kangaroos diAustralia.
Carnivores: lions, wolves, wild dogs, cheetahs.

3. Biomes Sabana

Savanna Biome is a meadow with trees interspersed by a mob. Based on the types of plants are arranged, savannas can be divided into two, namely pristine savannah and savannah mix.

- Sabana pure: the trees that constitute only consists
on one plant species only.
- Sabana mix: if the constituent trees consist of
a mixture of different kinds of trees.

4. Tropical Forest Biomes

Tropical forest biome is a biome that has a diversity of plants and animals are the highest. Includes the Amazon basin-Orinaco, Central America, large parts of Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea, and the Congo basin in Africa.

1. Hajannya bulk high, evenly distributed throughout the year, which is between 200-225 cm / year.
2. The sun shines all year round.
3. From month to month one another relatively small change in temperature.
4. Under the tree canopy or hood, dark all day, so there is no change in temperature between day and night.

- Flora: at biorna tropical forests there are hundreds of species
plant. The main trees can reach a height of 20-40 m, with leafy branches to form a
hood or canopy.

Plants typically encountered are lianas and epiphytes. Liana is
plants that spread on the surface of the forest, for example: rattan. Epiphytic
plant is attached to the trunks of trees, and
not harm the tree, for example: Orchid, nail Nest

- Fauna: in the hood enough sunlight during the day
live animals that are diurnal animals are active during the day, in the area under the canopy of live animals and the base-
nokfurnal animals are animals that are active at night
day, for example: owls, wild boar, jungle cat, leopard.

5. Winter Forest

In the tropics, there is also a tropical forest than the forest.

Plant traits that make up the forest formations:

Trees resistant to drought and tropofit including plants, it means being able to adapt to the dry and wet conditions during the dry season (dry), the leaves wither, whereas during the rainy season, heavy leaves. Forests regular season are named according to the dominant plant, for example: teak forests, forest angsana. In Indonesia, the forest can be found in Central Java and East Java. Fauna which are found deer, wild boar, tiger.

6. Forest Moss

Moss forests are found on the slopes or mountain which lies at an altitude above the condensation of water vapor. Called moss forest as the dominant vegetation is moss plant. Moss is growing not only in permakean soil and rocks, but they also cover the trunks of woody trees. So in forest moss, moss that grows not only alone, but many forest trees covered with moss. Throughout the day almost always rains because of high humidity and low temperatures cause moisture constantly.

7. Deciduous Forest Biomes (deciduous Forest)

Characteristic of deciduous forest biome is the plant during the winter, the leaves wither. Biomes can be found in the United States, Western Europe, East Asia and Chile.

- Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, 75-100 cm / year.
- Having 4 seasons: summer, winter, autumn and
- Diversity of plant species is lower than forest biome

Summer deciduous forest biome, solar radiation energy received is high, as well as precipitation (rainfall) and humidity. This condition causes the tall trees grew well, but the light is still able to penetrate to the bottom, because it is not so dense foliage growth. Existing customers in this area are insects, birds, squirrels, and raccoons are animals countrymen mongoose / weasel.

On the eve of the winter, solar radiation began to decrease, subu began to fall. Plants began difficult to get water to the leaves turn red, brown eventually fall, so it is called the fall season.

In the winter, bare plants and fotosentesis activities. Some animals do hibernation (sleep in the winter). Towards the summer, temperatures rise, the snow melts, the plant began leafy back (spring) so-called spring.

8. Biomes Taiga Forest / Forest Homogeneous

Biomes are mostly located in the area between the subtropical to polar regions, such as in Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia, Alaska, Canada.

The characteristics of taiga forest biome:
1. Temperature differences between summer and winter is high, the high temperature in summer, in winter the temperature is very low.
2. Plant growth occurs in the summer that lasts between 3 to 6 months.
3. Flora is a typical needle leaf trees / conifer trees, coniferous trees are examples of Pinus (pine). Diversity of plants in the taiga biome low, almost uniform vegetation, the dominant conifer trees because almost uniform, the forest is called homogeneous forest. Green vegetation all year round, even in winter with very low temperatures.
4. Fauna found in this area are black bears, take, wolves and birds migrating tropical stricken when winter arrives. Some animals such as squirrels and other small mammals and hibernating during the winter.

9. Forest Biomes Tundra

Biome is located in the North Pole so the climate is polar climate. The term tundra means treeless terrain, vegetation dominated by mosses and lichens, other vegetation is grass and a few small flowering plants.

1. Got a little energy solar radiation, very long winter can last for 9 months with a dark atmosphere.
2. Summer lasted 3 months, the time that the vegetation growth.
3. Fauna typical of the tundra biome is "Muskoxem" (bison disgorge thick) and Reindeer / Caribou (reindeer).

10. Mangrove / Mangrove

Mangrove forest / mangroves are found along the coast of the ramps in the tropics and subtropics. The dominant plants are mangroves (Rhizophora sp), so the name was mangroves, besides mangrove trees were also found Wood Fire (Avicennia) and punch a tree (Bruguiera).

1. Water and soil salinity is high.
2. Tanahaya O2 levels and low water.
3. At high tide, flooding the environment, at low tide and herlumpur muddy environment.

In conditions of high salinity, causing difficulty absorbing water mangroves although much water environment, the situation is known as physiological drought. To adapt to the environment mangroves have leaves that are thick and stiff, covered with cuticle so as to prevent the evaporation is too big.

To adapt to low O2 levels, mangrove roots absorb O2 breathing function directly from the air. So that a new individual is not swept away by the water currents due to tides and tidal mangrove especially we see a phenomenon known as VIVIPARI which means seed germination while seeds are still present in the fruit, not the date of the parent tree, which sometimes can form roots times can reach 1 meter in length.

If the seeds have germinated was separated from the parent tree with long roots can be dug deep enough in the mud, so it will not interfere with the flow of water occurs in the movement of ups and downs.

The mangrove forests in Indonesia, located along the east coast of Sumatra, Kalimantan and south west coast and along the coast of Guinea, on the island of Java, a rather extensive mangrove forest remaining around Segara Anakan near Cilacap which is Citanduy estuaries.

The types of animals that can be found within the mangrove forests are mainly animals, fish and reptiles (crocodiles, monitor lizards) and birds that nest in the mangrove trees.

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Biogeographic Regions and Distribution of Organisms

Biogeography is the study of the field and tried to explain the distribution of organisms on the Earth's surface. In this world known six biogeographic regions with each region having specific differences and uniformity (unique) in groups. 

Biogeographic regions is called Australia, Oriental, Ethiopia, Neotropika, Paleartik and Neartik. Because Paleartik fauna and Neartik were similar, then both biogeographic regions are sometimes combined into Holartik.

Biogeographic regions of the world with some of the typical organisms 
Australian New Guinea, New Zealand, and islands in the Pacific Ocean.For example: All the monotremes, Marsupial (not placental mammals / pouched mammals), Rodentia, Bats, birds Kaswari, Cenderawasih birds, types of parrots, fish lungs Australian and Kiwi bird. 

2. Oriental 
Southern Asia region of the Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Kalirnantan, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.For example: Siamang, orangutan, elephant, rhino, bird peacock. 

3.EthiopiaAfrica, Magaskar and islands around AfricaFor example: African Elephant, Gorilla, Chimpanzee, African Rhino, Lion, Hippo, Zebra, Giraffe, Camel Bird. 

South and Central America, Mexico and the West Indies.For example: Armadillo, Vampire bats, birds, hummingbirds. 

North America from the highlands of Mexico to the Arctic and Greenland.For example: Mountain Goats, Karibon, water rats (Beaves). 

Eurasia south to the Himalayas, Afghanistan, Iran and Africa north of the Sahara desert.For example: Porcupine, Wild boar and small deer.

Historical biogeography 
Emphasizing mainly on the history of evolution (growth) of groups of organisms. Where did they come from? How do they spread? How distribution in the present can tell us about the history of the past? 

Ecological biogeography 
Focusing on the interaction of the organism at the moment with the physical environment and interaction with each other and to understand how these relationships affect which species and a greater taxon was found in the present. 

Climate and Biogeography
Climate is the main factor that determines the type of soil and plant species that grow in the area. Instead of plant species to determine the type of animals and micro-organisms that will inhabit the area. Basically climate depends on the sun. Sun was responsible not only for the intensity of light available animal lays the photosynthesis process, but also for the general temperature. 

Other climate components that determine what organisms can live in an area is moisture, humidity is also dependent on sunlight and temperature. Much rain is needed to support the growth of large trees, while less rainfall helps communities dominated by short trees, shrubs, grasses and finally cactus or other desert plants. 

The higher rainfall and temperature hajan in an area (of land) the more and the greater the number tumbahan it supports. Thus the climate is one major factor formation regions biography.  

The spread of organisms on Earth 
Distribution of organisms are influenced by history, past climate and the composition or shape of the continents and the ecological relationships of the past and present, as well as all interactions with each other. Because of the complexity of this relationship, the biogeography experts have tended to focus on one of the two major approaches to the art.

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